When injected directly into a tumor mass, adenovirus Ad vectors only transduce cells immediately along the injection tract. Expression of fusogenic proteins from the Ad vector can lead to syncytium formation, which efficiently spreads the therapeutic effect. Fusogenic proteins can also cause cancer cell death directly, and enhance the release of exosome-like particles containing tumor-associated antigens, which boosts the anti-tumor immune response. In this study, we have examined whether delivery of an early region 1 E1 -deleted, replication-defective Ad vector encoding the reptilian reovirus p14 fusion-associated small transmembrane FAST protein can provide therapeutic efficacy in an immunocompetent mouse tumor model. A high multiplicity of infection of AdFAST is required to induce cell fusion in mouse mammary carcinoma 4T1 cells in vitro , and FAST protein expression caused a modest reduction in cell membrane integrity and metabolic activity compared with cells infected with a control vector.
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The scientific library "Chess" contains research papers preferably from the end of the 90s. In many cases the link leads to the research papers as a freely available PDF file. Research papers on chess in education, school and kindergarten can be found in the school library - chess.
Work In Progress. Attempting to form an index of everyone I have featured on my Tumblr, If you see a name missing, please let me know. I'm going to update as I come across more names, but I invite you to search my Tumblr for anyone you see listed.